合作原则在民用航空英语中的应用Cooperative Principle in Civil Aviation English毕业论文
Cooperative Principle is one of the most important principles in Pragmatics, it is a theory of using language. Now civil aviation is growing by leaps and bounds in China, both in its equipment and infrastructure, therefore, it is necessary to improve the quality of service. Cooperative Principle, as the bridge between passenger and civil aviation company, is playing a vital role in civil aviation. This essay will illustrate Cooperative Principle in civil aviation through in five parts.
First part is the literature review on Cooperative Principle, researches down by Chinese scholars and abroad had been drawn out; Second part illustrates the significance of Cooperative Principle in civil aviation; In third part, the author gives some examples about civil aviation crisis caused by violating Cooperative Principle; In the fourth part, counter-measurements for improving the awareness of Cooperative Principle are drawn up; The fifth part is conclusion, it talks about the application of Cooperative Principle in civil aviation in the future.
Key Words: Cooperative Principle; Civil aviation English; Addresser; Addressee
1 Introduction 1
2 Literature Review on Cooperative Principle 2
2.1 Definition of Cooperative Principle 2
2.2 Domestic and Abroad Studies on Cooperative Principles 2
3 Significance of Cooperative Principle in Civil Aviation 4
3.1 Service of China Civil Aviation: Past and Present 4
3.2 Significance of Following Cooperative Principle in Flight 4
3.3 Four Maxims of Cooperative Principle in Conversation 6
3.4 Side-effect Caused by Violating Cooperative Principle 7
4 Aviation Crisis Caused by Violating Cooperative Principle 8
4.1 Aviation Crisis Violating the Cooperative Principle Caused by Addresser 8
4.2 Aviation Crisis Violating the Cooperative Principle Caused by Addressee 9
5 Counter-measurements of Improving the Awareness of Cooperative Principle 11
5.1 Simple but Informative Sentences 11
5.2 Consideration on Passengers’ Side 11
6 Conclusion 13
Cooperative Principle in Civil Aviation English
Cooperative Principle, a specific term in Pragmatics, plays a vital role in effective communication. Pragmatics is one part of Linguistics relating study of language meaning. Among all of the definitions of Pragmatics, there are two basic concepts. One is meaning, another is language environment. Pragmatics studies the specific words in specific situation and how to understand and use language according to language environment. When people use language, the speakers do not just express the language element and the static meaning of symbols. At the same time, the listener has to understand the speaker’s real intention through a series of psychological inference. American linguistic philosopher Grice was the first person put forward the principle. He mentioned that in the process of understanding, both the addresser and the addressee in the talk should have the willingness to carry the conversation on. For this reason, Dr. Grice developed an approach to discourse analysis what he termed Cooperative Principle. Make your conversational contribution such as is required at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged. It includes four maxims to build up the principle. In this age, people pay much more attention to language using. Cooperative Principle can be applied in different language field such as education, service. Airplane is a special working place where Cooperative Principle seems to be more important. In this essay, I want to combine the linguistics theory termed as Cooperative Principle with my future work application- civil aviation English, which is very practical and meaningful, and it will be a good example of combination of theory and application.
2 Literature Review on Cooperative Principle
2.1 Definition of Cooperative Principle
The theory of Cooperative Principle was first put forward by the Oxford philosopher Paul Grice. Grice (1967) proposes that all speakers, regardless of their cultural backgrounds, adhere to a basic principle that he terms as the Cooperative Principle. That is, the participants will try to cooperate with each other in a conversation. The Cooperative Principle and its maxims are as follows: the Maxim of Quantity (make your contribution as informative as is required), the Maxim of Quality (try to make your contribution true; specifically do not say what you believe to be false; do not say what you lack adequate evidence), the Maxim of Relation (make your contributions relevant), and the Maxim of Manner (be explicit and avoid ambiguity; be orderly and be short). In brief, participants should observe these maxims so as to make the conversation maximally efficient, reasonable, and cooperative. That is, they should speak informatively, truly, relevantly and perspicuously.
2.2 Domestic and Abroad Studies on Cooperative Principles
After Cooperative Principle appeared, Chinese scholars took a wide research on this pragmatic inference mechanism and came up with a new conversation meaning theory suitable for the situation of our country. It mainly talks about the effect and supplement Politeness Principle brings to Cooperative Principle. Politeness Principle contains six maxim, maxim of tact, maxim of generosity, maxim of approbation, maxim of modesty, maxim of agreement and maxim of sympathy. If we consider more about Cooperative Principle in a conversation, we need to consider less about Politeness Principle, and vice versa. Politeness is closely connected with culture, for this reason, politeness in one culture is different from other cultures. Gu Riyuan(1990) came up with the idea of Politeness Principle of Chinese people. It improved the development of Pragmatics in China. “With existence of Politeness Principle, flouting principle derives from cooperative principle. Flouting Principle needs the listener to understand the deep meaning that the speaker wants to express from the surface meaning that the speaker talks.”(Sun, 2012) As we can see from the above, Cooperative Principle plays an important part in daily communication and social contact.
We know there happened so many accidents in the air. The way flight attendant solve problems and the way they communicate with passengers are still not perfect. It is necessary to improve the skill of speaking in civil aviation. “Violation of Cooperative Principle is a way to express deep meaning. It has a balance to use it.”(Liu, 2011)