浅析认知域视角下《老人与海》中天人合一 Study on “Oneness of the Heaven and Men” in The Old Man and the Sea from the Perspective of Cognitive Field毕业论文
The Old Man and the Sea is one of masterpieces of Ernest Miller Hemingway, an American novelist in the 20th century. The work wins Noble Prize for literature in 1954. In terms of this work, researches have been mainly focused on “iron man” feature, “iceberg” theory and ecological view,but there is rarely a paper which analyzes the masterpiece from the perspective of cognitive field. Therefore, this article is going to interpret The Old Man and the Sea from cognitive field, analyzing the thought of “Oneness of the Heaven and Men”in this work.
The thesis includes five main parts. The first part is an introduction, which consists of background and significance of the study, and it’s innovation.The second part mainly talks about the present research situation to the work at home and broad, and briefly introduces Cognitive field. The third part analyzes the manifestation of the thought of“Oneness of the Heaven and Men”in different cognitive fields. The fourth part concludes the effects of the adoption of cognitive fields have on the novel. The last part is a conclusion for the whole thesis. Study on the thought of “Oneness of the Heaven and Men”in The Old Man and the Sea provides a new angle for readers to redefine this work, and a certain reference to study The Old Man and the Sea .
Key Words: cognitive fields; The Old Man and the Sea; Oneness of the Heaven and Men;
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Significance and Originality of the Study 1
2 Literature Review 3
2.1 Present Research Situation 3
2.2 Theoretical Basis 4
2.2.1 The Concept of Oneness of the Heaven and Men 4
2.2.2 The Concept of Cognitive Field 4
3 “Oneness of Heaven and Men” in Different Cognitive Fields 6
3.1 Vision Field 6
3.2 Audition Field 7
3.3 Olfaction Field 7
3.4 Gustation Field 8
3.5 Tactus Field 10
4 Effects of the Cognitive Fields 12
5 Conclusion 13
Study on the thought of“Oneness of the Heaven and Men”in The Old Man and the Sea from the Perspective of Cognitive Field
1.1 Background of the Study
Ernest Miller Hemingway is an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist. His economical and understated style has a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his life of adventure and his public image influence later generations. Hemingway produces most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and win the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954. He publishes seven novels, six short story collections, and two non-fiction works. Additional works, including three novels, four short story collections, and three non-fiction works, are published posthumously. Many of his works are considered classics of American literature, including The Old Man and the Sea, the last major work of fiction by Hemingway that is published during his lifetime. The protagonist Santiago is an old fisherman, driving a boat alone for fishing, ending up with nothing for 84 days on end. He rows further out to the sea, then he finds a giant marlin eventually. It takes him two days and two nights to catch the fish. Unexpectedly, he suffers heavy attack by sharks on his way into the shore when the old man is exhausted and wounded. When he drags his weary body ashore, the sharks have almost devoured the marlin’s entire carcass, leaving a skeleton consisting mostly of its backbone, its tail and its head. In 1953, The Old Man and the Sea is awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, and it is cited by the Nobel Committee as contributing to their awarding of the Nobel Prize for Literature to Hemingway in 1954.
1.2 Significance and Originality of the Study
As one of the milestone works in American history, The Old Man and The Sea has been studied by quite a number of scholars and researchers. Most of the researches laid particular emphasis on its original writing techniques and symbolic significance. However numerous the articles are, there is hardly a paper which analyzes the masterpiece from the perspective of cognitive domain. Therefore, this article will provide a relatively new angle for people to have another kind of understanding on the work.
The Oneness of the Heaven and Men, which dates back to around the Spring and Autumn period and runs through the Chinese history, has profound influence on the formality of Chinese national characters. The Oneness of the Heaven and Men, as the core of the traditional Chinese culture, has been interpreted through various ways by Chinese intellectuals, such as bringing up their own viewpoints, or integrating this typical eastern philosophic thought with foreign works. Nevertheless, no one has ever integrated this thought with the great work, The Old Man and the Sea.
2 Literature Review
2.1 Present Research Situation
The Old Man and the Sea served to reinvigorate Hemingway’s literary reputation and prompted a reexamination of his entire body of work. The novel was initially received with much popularity and it restored many readers’ confidence in Hemingway’s capability as an author. Its publisher, Scribner’s, on an early dust jacket, called the novel a “new classic,” and many critics favorably compared it with such works as William Faulkner’s The Bear and Herman Melville’s Moby Dick. One of the most outspoken critics of The Old Man and the Sea is Robert P. Weeks. His 1962 piece “Fakery in The Old Man and the Sea” presents his claim that the novel is a weak and unexpected divergence from the typical, realistic Hemingway (referring to the rest of Hemingway’s body of work as “earlier glories”). In juxtaposing this novel against Hemingway’s previous works, Weeks contends: “The difference, however, in the effectiveness with which Hemingway employs this characteristic device in his best work and in The Old Man and the Sea is illuminating. The work of fiction in which Hemingway devoted the most attention to natural objects, The Old Man and the Sea, is pieced out with an extraordinary quantity of fakery, extraordinary because one would expect to find no inexactness, no romanticizing of natural objects in a writer who loathed W.H. Hudson, could not read Thoreau, deplored Melville’s rhetoric in Moby Dick, and who was himself criticized by other writers, notably Faulkner, for his devotion to the facts and his unwillingness to ‘invent.’” (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The Old Man and the Sea)