向伤痛告别——《可爱的骨头》中琳茜沙蒙的创伤后成长A Farewell to Pain --The Posttraumatic Growth of Lindsey Salmon in The Lovely Bones毕业论文_英语毕业论文

向伤痛告别——《可爱的骨头》中琳茜沙蒙的创伤后成长A Farewell to Pain –The Posttraumatic Growth of Lindsey Salmon in The Lovely Bones毕业论文

2021-04-02更新

摘 要

创伤后成长是由心理学家特德斯奇和卡尔霍恩于二十世纪九十年代提出的理论,强调个体在与创伤性负面事件带来的消极影响抗争中所体验到的积极变化。特德斯奇和卡尔霍恩的创伤后成长模型主要体现了受创伤个体从被动接受,到认知加工,再到创伤后成长的三个阶段。创伤后成长的概念,促进因素,评定方法的发展为文学批评中的创伤研究提供了新的视角。《可爱的骨头》是艾丽斯·希伯德于2002年出版的作品,讲述了萨蒙家长女苏茜·萨蒙于十四岁时被邻居乔治·哈维强奸并且杀害后萨蒙一家伤痛的形成与愈合。琳茜·萨蒙作为家中的次女,不仅遭受了失去姐姐的痛苦,也面临着一个被悲痛瓦解的家庭。在萨蒙一家与伤痛的抗争中,正向改变在琳茜身上得到了最为明显的体现。本文旨在结合特德斯奇与卡尔霍恩的创伤后成长模型分析《可爱的骨头》中琳茜·萨蒙的创伤后成长。本文分为五个部分:第一部分介绍主要内容和创作背景;第二部分介绍创伤发生后琳茜被动接受阶段的内在感受与外在表现;第三部分主要介绍琳茜创伤后成长过程中以自我表露和社会支持为辅助的认知加工;第四部分介绍琳茜在创伤后成长中个人力量的增长与生活态度的转变;第五部分总结全文。创伤不只可以带来痛苦,也可以带来成长。带着伤疤向伤痛告别,迎来的将会是美好的未来。

关键词:《可爱的骨头》;创伤后成长;认知加工;自我表露;社会支持

Abstract

The theory of posttraumatic growth was put forward by Richard Tedeschi and Lawrence Calhoun in the 1990s. It explains the possible positive changes as a result of the struggle with traumatic event. Tedeschi and Calhoun’s model of posttraumatic growth mainly reflects three stages of posttraumatic growth, including passive acceptance, cognitive processing, and posttraumatic growth. The development of the concept, approaches, and evaluation of posttraumatic growth in psychology provide a new perspective for trauma studies in literature criticism. The Lovely Bones, written by Alice Sebold, is a novel published in 2002. It tells a story about the pain and recovery in the Salmons after Susie Salmon, the firstborn of the family, is murdered by a neighbor named George Harvey. Lindsey Salmon, as the second child of the family, faces not only the loss of a sister, but also a broken family. In the struggle with pain, Lindsey is the one who shows more positive changes. This paper aims to analyses the posttraumatic growth of Lindsey under the guidance of Tedeschi and Calhoun’s model of possttraumatic growth. This paper is divided into five parts. The first part aims to introduce the background information of this paper, including the background information of the author, the novel, relative literature, and the theory of posttraumatic growth. In the second part, inward experiences and outward manifestations of the traumatized Lindsey are introduced. The following part focuses on the process of Lindsey’s struggle with pain from a perspective of cognitive processing aided by self-disclosure and social support. The fourth part is to show Lindsey’s posttraumatic growth in personal strength and appreciation for life. The last part is the conclusion. What comes along with trauma is not only pain, but also growth. Say farewell to pain with scars, and expect a brighter future.

Key Words: The Lovely Bones; posttraumatic growth; cognitive processing; self-disclosure; social support

Contents

1 Introduction 1

1.1Alice Sebold and The Lovely Bones 1

1.2Literature Review 2

1.3Theory of Posttraumatic Growth 5

2 The Challenge from Pain: Passive Acceptance 7

2.1 Inward Experience 7

2.2 Outward Manifestation 9

3 The Struggle with Pain: Cognitive Processing 11

3.1 Self-Disclosure 11

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