On English Translation of wds phrases with Chinese Characteristics in Rept on the Wk of the Government 2014 From the Perspective of Skopos They毕业论文_英语毕业论文

On English Translation of wds phrases with Chinese Characteristics in Rept on the Wk of the Government 2014 From the Perspective of Skopos They毕业论文


摘 要



Transcription Conventions

ST: Skopos Theory

WPCC: words and phrases with Chinese characteristics

GWR: government work report


1.Introduction 1

2.Demonstration 1

2.1 Skopos theory 2

2.2 Words and Phrases with Chinese Characteristics in Government Work Report 3

2.2.1 Characteristics of WPCC in Government Work Reports 3

2.2.2 Classifications of WPCC in Government Work Report 4

2.3 The Translation of WPCC From ST 5

2.3.1 Elements and Process of Translation of WPCC 5

2.3.2 The Application of Skopos Rule to the English Translation of WPCC 6

2.3.3 The Application of Coherence Rule to the English Translation of WPCC 9

2.3.4 The Application of Fidelity Rule to the English Translation of WPCC 11

2.4 Translation Strategies Guided by the Skopos Theory 13

2.4.1 Literal Translation 13

2.4.2 Free Translation 13

2.4.3 Transliteration 14

2.4.4 Amplification 14

2.4.5 Omission 15

3. Conclusion 15

Works Cited 17

Bibliography 18

1. Introduction

Coincident with its substantial development, China plays an increasingly important role in international affairs. It follows that much more contacts are made between China and other countries. Thus, WPCC are mushrooming reflecting “China’s circumstances and development” (Xiao Shuilai 2008). Meanwhile, as the essence of Chinese culture, they play a critical role in airing China’s voice to foreign audience. However, due to their cultural uniqueness, novelty and politicized features, there are many obstacles to translating for sure.

Skopos Theory, set up by the German linguist Hans Vermeer, provides us with a new view in the study of translation. It holds the idea that translating should “take into consideration of the function of source and target texts” (Sun Jicai 2012). To some degree, skopos theory reflects the transfer from linguistic translation theory to a more functionally-oriented translation theory.

Overseas well-known medium, such as Time and Newsweek, have translated a large number of WPCC in GWR. Domestic studies pay much more attention to the English translation of sentences in GWR. When searching “中国特色词汇,翻译,政府工作报告”in CNKI, we can get 80 or so articles, most of which study from the perspective of domestication, foreignization and so forth. However, English translation of WPCC in 2014 GWR are rare.

This paper aims to explore the English translation of WPCC in GWR from the perspective of ST. First, it will give a brief introduction of ST and WPCC. Then, it is to explore the process of translation of WPCC and give detailed analysis of examples with the application of three rules of ST. Last, strategies for translation of WPCC are pointed out guided by ST.

2. Demonstration

ST regards translation as inter-cultural communication with purpose, with the focus on practical communicative function. In this sense, translation is beyond the language. WPCC in GWR are closely associated with government’s policies and national interests. The advantage of adoption of ST in the translation of WPCC is that translators, with specific aim, can flexibly select translation strategies to make foreign audience gain better understanding of GWR, because much more attention is paid to the function of target text.

In this part, a brief introduction of ST will be given and the attention will be poured into the exploration of WPCC in 2014 GWR from the perspective of ST.

2.1 Skopos Theory

ST was put forward by German linguist Hans Vermeer in Framework for a General Translation Theory (1987) and he gave detailed statement in Groundwork for a General Theory of Translation (1984), in which he argued that not only is translation a linguistic process but also a human action. In accordance with action theory, Vermeer defines human action as international purposeful behavior that takes place in a given situation (Nord 11). In Vermeer’s opinion, translation is not just a transfer between languages. As Christiane Nord announces, “A translation theory cannot draw a linguistic theory alone, however complex it may be” (Nord 11). Vermeer names his theory “Skopos theorie”. The word skopos is a technical term for the aim or purpose of a translation (Vermeer, Translation 173).

In ST, the status of the source text is much lower than the target text. Factor determining the purpose of a translation is the addressee, who is the intended receiver or audience of the target text with their culture, knowledge, their expectation and communicative needs (Nord 12).

There are three dominating rules in ST, the skopos rule, the coherence rule and the fidelity rule. The word “skopos” is a Greek word meaning “purpose”. In accordance with ST, “the prime principle determining any translation process is the purpose” (Nord 27). The term “skopos” usually means the purpose of the target text. Thus, the skopos rule can be defined as making translation text achieve its expected function in the situationed condition (Nord 29). What’s more, as long as the expected function is achieved, the target text is not necessarily in line with the source text. Besides the skopos rule, coherence and fidelity rule also play vital roles in translation. The coherence rule states that “A translation should be acceptable in a sense that it is coherent with the receivers’ situation” (Reiss and Vermeer 109). That is to say, target text should make sense in the receiver’s culture. In Vermeer’s terms, the target text should comply with the standard of “intratextual coherence” (Reiss and Vermeer 110). Next is fidelity rule, namely, intertextual coherence. The translation is expected to “bear some kind of relationship with the corresponding source text” (Nord 32). The degree of such fidelity is associated with the understanding of the corresponding source text. Moreover, it is subordinate to the purpose of translation. Christiane Nord announces that intertextual coherence is subordinate to intratextual coherence, and both of them are subordinate to the skopos rule (33).

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