Doublespeak in Military Use a Reinterpretation under Translinguistics毕业论文_英语毕业论文

Doublespeak in Military Use a Reinterpretation under Translinguistics毕业论文

2021-04-02更新

摘 要

作为一种语言现象,双重言论一直受到美国英语教师协会和一些学者、政治批评家们的重视。伊拉克战争期间,双重言论的使用尤其突出。而超越语言学作为米凯尔·巴赫金提出的语言学理论,如今渐渐进入各国学者的研究范畴。通过超越语言学的理论来分析伊拉克战争时期双重言论在军事领域中的运用,可以帮助我们提升公众批判性读写能力,抑或更进一步,正确理解外交关系中两国间的战略。

关键词:双重言论;超越语言学;军事用途;伊拉克战争

Contents

1. Introduction————————————————————————————1

1.1 Doublespeak and its use in military——————————————————-1

1.2 Ideas of translinguistics———————————————————————2

2. Demonstration———————————————————————————3

2.1 Doublespeak as a symbol in military use————————————————-3

2.1.1 Interaction with ideologies—————————————————————4

2.1.2 Interaction with social communication————————————————-6

2.2 Dialogicity of the symbol——————————————————————-7

2.2.1 The role of “I”—————————————————————————–7

2.2.2 The role of “Others”———————————————————————-8

2.2.3 From “I” and “Others” to “Words” and “World”————————————10

3. Conclusion————————————————————————————11

Work Cited————————————————————————————–12

Bibliography————————————————————————————13

Doublespeak in Military Use: a Reinterpretation under Translinguistics

  1. Introduction
    1. Doublespeak and its use in military

Originated from “newspeak”, a word created by George Owell in his fiction 1984, “doublespeak”, appearing in 1952 (吴 41), has gradually come into the public’s view. Issued by the National Council of Teacher of English (NCTE), Doublespeak Award, as an ironic award for public speakers, has become the authority to judge whether the speaker’s words are doublespeak or not. From the list of the award, due to tactically using doublespeak in the declaration of the Iraq War, George W. Bush wins this award twice, respectively in 2003 and 2004. Thus, on the basis of having been carefully analyzed by numbers of linguists and English experts, taking the use of doublespeak about Iraq War as examples is better than other texts.

Included by On NIGHTING EIGHTY-FOUR Owell and Our Future, a memoir published after the seminar organized in Chicago University by Marvin J. Rosenblum, a fan of 1984, Edward S. Herman’s and Homi K. Bhabha’s theses both refer to doublespeak in military and political field and their risks. However, because the seminar’s goal is to discuss the book’s significance for the contemporary America, no litterateur or linguist was invited, that is to say, no linguistic analysis about doublespeak was worked out. Besides the documents of Doublespeak award, the relevant theses are: Language, Appearance and Reality: Doublespeak in 1984 (1987), Testing the Effectiveness of Doublespeak (1991), On Euphemisms, Gobbledygook and Doublespeak (1997), Compliance with Untruth (2013). All of these analyze doublespeak only in a general way. In China, only Dai Lianyun (2003) offered a brief introduction of doublespeak but without a specific decoding and just lists the utilization of doublespeak in each field. To summarize, few of the above mentioned studies completely decode doublespeak, which shows us a fresh field of studying the English language phenomenon. Moreover, like what has been warned by NCTE, this

language phenomenon could generate adverse effects, thus, it is valuable to further study it.

    1. Ideas of translinguistics

Presented by Mikhail Bakhtin, translinguistis is his linguistic theory which made his works well-known to public. Opposed to Saussure’s structural linguistics, Bakhtin’s translinguistics emphasizes that langue should be studied by taking the whole society into consideration. That is to say, when studying a language, it should be seen as a symbol (李 81), behind which the ideologies and the social communication must be studied. In addition, the inner structure of the language should also be studied, i.e. studying the relationship between “I” and “others”. According to Bakhtin, language is formed by multiple voices from “I” and “thou” (“others”) (李 82). While “I” was trying to reach monoaccentuality, “others” were making efforts to approach polyaccentuality. So, the sign is filled with dialogicity. Though his translinguistic theory is used in studying the works of Dostoevsky, he presented the idea of using it to analyze the public discourse in his later works. However, his life is too short to expend this idea. In western linguistics circles, scholars seldom mention translinguistics. In China, the study of this is in its initial stage.

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