The Silent Man A Subaltern Analysis of One Out of Many毕业论文
关键词： 桑托什； 《孤独的人》； 斯皮瓦克；属下；印度种姓制
1. Introduction 1
2. Demonstration 2
2.1 Postcolonialism and subaltern studies 2
2.1.1 Gayatri Spivak and her postcolonial theories 3
2.1.2 Introduction of subaltern studies 4
2.2.Ingrained subaltern 5
2.2.1 Formation of subalternity 5
2.2.2 Manifestation of subalternity 6
2.3 Gradually silent subaltern 8
2.3.1 Failure of blending in host country culture 8
2.3.2 Failure of constructing individual identity 10
2.3.3 Failure of escaping from emptiness 11
3. Conclusion 12
Works Cited 13
The Silent Man: A Subaltern Analysis of One Out of Many
For decades, Naipaul remains as one of the most preferred choices for analysis by scholars both home and overseas. Multi-faceted perspectives from psychoanalysis, narrative perspective to postcolonialism have been employed in researches on his works. For One Out of Many, published as the first story in the novella In a Free State in 1971, intellects abroad also demonstrated interest, conducting analysis with insightful ideas. On the whole, three topics are most frequently chosen for researches on this story – identification, freedom and immigration. In “V.S. Naipaul’s India,” Dennis Walder discusses Santosh’s quest for freedom, reaching conclusion that the freedom he obtains eventually is nothing but “an illusion” (83-100). Through “V.S. Naipaul’s Third World: A Not So Free State,” John Thieme analyzes Santosh’s traumatic immigrant experience in Washington, asserting escape from his former employer is actually “no less desirable than his former bondage” (10-21). Roldan-Santiago Serafin examines implications of pessimist and existentialist inclinations of the protagonist in “Pessimism and Existentialism in V.S. Naipaul,” arguing that it is exactly the protagonist’s pessimism and existentialism complex that transforms Santosh into a “primordial existence” (1-18).
As for domestic researchers, exploration of this story did not commence until approximately the 21st century. Up till now, merely a few scholars have written related essays featuring on angles as characterization and theme analogous to their western counterparts. In “A Freedom Seeking Stranger – An Interpretation of Santosh in Naipaul’s One Out of Many,” Zhong Xiuyan probes into Santosh’s image as a freedom-seeking stranger, indicating “his ego and superego could not keep balance” (180-181) accelerates formation of this image. Xu Weiwei critiques upon treatment of alienation and displacement themes in her thesis “The Theme of Alienation in V.S. Naipaul’s 1970s Novels.” Nevertheless, mere adoptions of research perspectives alike foreign researches could hardly bring new insights for analysis, let alone understand further the root cause of the protagonist’s tragedy.
It appears that few scholars, either home or abroad, have ever attempted to explore the story through Gayatri Spivak’s subaltern studies, a theory which might be rather appropriate for unveiling the underlying cause of this tragedy. In One Out of Many, Santosh’s subaltern identity remains permanent, that is to say no matter where he goes, his subaltern identity clings with him, traumatizes him and leads eventually to his emotional collapse. Divided into three segments, this thesis commences by introducing concisely Spivak’s subaltern theories as foundation of later analysis. Afterwards, discussion on what precise effect the India’s caste system has on the protagonist’s subaltern identity follows. Subsequently, analysis on Santosh’s endeavors of dispensing this identity arrives at conclusion that despite geological alterations of surrounding environment, the identity of Santosh remains unalterable. It is exactly this unchangeable identity that turns his pathetic end a destiny. Studying One Out of Many with subaltern theory enriches research perspective of this story. Moreover, it might shed some light on the significance of showing more concern towards marginalized groups in order to create a harmonious society.
2.1 Postcolonialism and subaltern studies