Cause Analysis of Cross-cultural Pragmatic Failure毕业论文_英语毕业论文

Cause Analysis of Cross-cultural Pragmatic Failure毕业论文

2021-04-02更新

摘 要

本文基于对大量例子的对比分析,主要研究了在跨文化交际中所产生的语用失误现象。研究结果表明,导致跨文化交际语用失误的原因有两大点:文化原因和语言原因。从文化原因看,人们广泛认为不同的思维模式和社会价值观是导致语用失误的原因。而从语言逻辑角度看,对目标语知识的掌握不足以及母语的负迁移影响是导致跨文化交际语用失误的主要原因。因此,对于第二语言学习者和交际者来说,他们需要更加关注语言和文化的差异性,自觉培养自己的文化意识和交流能力。

关键词:跨文化交际语用失误;语用语言失误;社交语用失误;文化差异性;

Contents

  1. Introduction——————————————————————–1
  2. Demonstration—————————————————————–2
    2.1 Pragmatics and cross-cultural pragmatic failure ————————-2

2.1.1 Pragmatics and cross-cultural communication ———————— 2

2.1.2 Cross-cultural pragmatic failure —————————————–3

2.2 Evidence of pragmatic failures ——————————————– 4

2.2.1 Pragmalinguistic failure ————————————————–4

2.2.2 Socio-pragmatic failure————————————————— 5

2.3 Cause analysis of cross-cultural pragmatic failures ——————– 6

2.3.1 Cultural causes————————————————————-6

2.3.1.1 Thinking model———————————————————-6

2.3.1.2 Social values ————————————————————-7

2.3.2 Linguistic causes———————————————————–9

2.3.2.1 Inadequate knowledge of target language —————————9

2.3.2.2 Negative transfer of native language ———————————9

2.4 Strategies for cultivating cross-cultural communication ability——11

2.4.1 Stressing both the language and culture teaching ——————–11

2.4.2 Cultivating cultural awareness ——————————————12

2.4.3 Improving pragmatic competence ————————————- 13

3. Conclusion.——————————————————————– 13

Works cited———————————————————————–15

Bibliography———————————————————————–16

Cause Analysis of Cross-cultural Pragmatic Failures

  1. Introduction

In the process of foreign language learning or intercultural communication, language errors caused by the inappropriate use of language by people of different cultural backgrounds in communication are called pragmatic failures. In recent decades, as China’s national strength continues to increase, its foreign exchanges have become increasingly frequent. Therefore, in order to ensure the accuracy and effectiveness of the communication, the analysis on the causes of pragmatic failure in intercultural communication is very necessary to carry on.

With more and more attention attached to the cross-cultural pragmatic failure, analyzing this kind of failure has gained its importance. As a common phenomenon in daily life, many people may have experienced the embarrassment when they fail to understand others’ real meanings. Actually, this is one of the problems that pragmatic failure may cause. The concept of pragmatic failure was put forward by Jenny Thomas, a famous British pragmatic linguist, in her article “Pragmatic Failure in Intercultural Communication” in 1983, which was defined as “the inability to understand what is meant by what is said”. Thomas pointed out that “pragmatic failure occurs when the meaning of the speaker’s perceived discourse is different from what the speaker intends to express or believes it should be perceived by the listener.” (1983: 96) And cross-culture communication, according to Kramsch, is such a hypothetical premise of a country, a language and a culture, that people are most likely to suffer from the “culture shock” once they cross borders. Thomas also divided pragmatic failure into two types: Pragmalinguistic failures and social pragmatic failure. Pragmalinguistic failures include the inability of using grammatical rules to write correct words and sentences and the violation of language habits while using the expressions in target language indiscriminately. The social pragmatic failure is more complex than pragmalinguistic failures. It explains the phenomenon that people who are adhering to the social conventions in their mother tongue understand and express sentences in the target language in the same context as the mother tongue, which causes pragmalinguistic failures. He Ziran pointed out that pragmatic failure does not refer to errors in language usage but in inaccurate speech, improper ways of speaking and unacceptable behaviors ( He, 1997:205). Qian Guanlian claimed that the speaker in verbal communication may be able to use the correct sentences but he or she unconsciously violates the norms of interpersonal interaction, social values (Qian, 1997: 223). And this kind of mistake is called a pragmatic failure. Therefore, pragmatic failure is the consequence of people violating the principle of decency, especially violating interpersonal norms and neglecting social and cultural backgrounds and specific situations of communication.

Since its frequent occurrence in our daily communication, which causes many cross-cultural communication failures in our life, this paper, by using the method of comparative analysis, mainly discusses cross-cultural pragmatic failures and its causes. First, from the perspective of culture and linguistics, this paper analyzes the causes of pragmalinguistic failure and sociopragmatic failure, which are the two main forms of cross-cultural pragmatic failure. Second, focusing on the causes, it gives some suggestions to improve people’s cross-cultural communication ability. At last, it concludes that cross-cultural pragmatic failures are mainly resulted from the causes of thinking models, social values, negative transfer of language and inadequate knowledge of target language.

  1. Demonstration

2.1. Pragmatics and cross-cultural pragmatic failure

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