An Analysis of Pacifism in Ernest Hemingway’s Short Stories毕业论文_英语毕业论文

An Analysis of Pacifism in Ernest Hemingway’s Short Stories毕业论文

2021-04-02更新

摘 要

和平主义与反战思想是海明威短篇小说中最重要的主题之一。《在异乡》和《一个干净、明亮的地方》是海明威短篇小说的代表作。在小说《在异乡》中,从战场上病退的老兵们忍受着身体创伤与精神创伤的双重折磨,同时还要承受战后社会给他们带来的孤独感。对于老兵们来说,战争带来的伤痛难以愈合。《一个干净、明亮的地方》中的老人,见证了战后社会中社会伦理的丧失,因而失去了对生活的希望。海明威作品中的人物厌恶战争,却不得不承受战争带来的破坏。他们的悲惨经历激发了人们对两次世界大战的反思,推动了和平运动的发展。本文从和平主义的角度出发,通过分析海明威短篇小说中的主要人物在战后社会中的生存状况,探讨作者的反战思想。

关键词: 《在异乡》;《一个干净,明亮的地方》;和平主义;反战

Contents

1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………1

2. Demonstration……………………………………………………………………………………..2

2.1 A brief introduction to pacifism……………………………………………………………2

2.2 Pacifism after World War I……………………………………………………………………..3

2.2.1 Huge casualties in World War I……………………………………………………………..3

2.2.2 Postwar crisis of the society and the lost generation…………………………………..3

2.3 Pacifism reflected by the major characters…………………………………………………….4

2.3.1 The soldiers in In Another Country……………………………………………………………5

2.3.2 The old man and the two waiters in A Clean, Well-Lighted Place……………………7

  1. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………9

Works Cited…………………………………………………………………………….12

Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………..13

An Analysis of Pacifism in Ernest Hemingway’s Short Stories

1. Introduction

Ernest Hemingway was well-known as an American journalist, novelist and short story writer. He produced most of his works between the 1920s and the 1950s and won the Nobel Prize of Literature in 1954. Hemingway spent his childhood in Oak Park. After graduating from high school, he worked as a journalist in the Kansas City Star for several months, and then went to the Italian Front and became an ambulance driver. He was awarded the Silver Brave Medal during the First World War. In 1918, he was badly injured, so he returned home. In 1921, he moved to Paris, where he served as a journalist and was influenced by the writers and artists in the foreign community at that time. In 1961, he shot himself at home.

Most of Hemingway’s literary accomplishments were in his novels. His works were influenced by the two world wars, reflecting the social conditions after the war and the enormous damage that the war had brought to people. He won the Pulitzer Prize in 1953 and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954 for his book The Old Man and the Sea. What’s more, Hemingway’s novel The Sun Also Rises and A Farewell to Arms were listed in the “100 Best English Novels of the 20th Century” by the American Modern Library. Despite this, his short stories also had a distinct artistic style. He adopted a kind of objective and authentic narrative method to make his stories as calm and objective as possible. Hemingway’s short stories always left the reader with a lot of imagination. The style of his short stories not only had profound significance for the development of American literary history, but also contained meditation on the two world wars.

His short story In Another Country told a story of a group of disabled soldiers undergoing rehabilitation in Milan, Italy during the First World War. The protagonist, a major, was wounded seriously, with one of his hand atrophied to the same size as a paw of animals. He felt hopeless towards any treatment not only because of the hurt, but also because of the death of his wife. A Clean, Well-Lighted Place was a story of an old man who was despairing and lonely in the post-war society. From the prospective of the old man, Hemingway displayed an “empty world” brought about by the war. Through describing the hard life of veterans, Hemingway expressed his anti-war ideas.

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