跨文化交际中的语用失误及协商策略研究Study on Pragmatic Failure and Negotiation Strategy in Cross-cultural Communication毕业论文
With the development of globalization, the continuous advancement of science and technology has made it easier for people from all over the world to communicate with each other. Intercultural communication has become an irresistible trend of the times. However, people with different cultural backgrounds often encounter obstacles in the communication and communicate unsuccessfully. One of the important reasons is exactly the pragmatic failure.
Pragmatic failure is an important area of pragmatics and intercultural communication research. It was proposed by British linguist Thomas in 1983,including pragmalinguistic failure and sociopragmatic failure. The former mainly refers to the misuse of the language expression, while the latter refers to the expression errors caused by not understanding or ignoring the social culture of both parties. This paper has briefly reviewed the domestic and international studies on intercultural communication and pragmatic failure. With the methods of questionnaire and interview, it explores the status of college students’ intercultural competence (hereafter this text will be abbreviated as ICC) and pragmatic competence, discusses the performances and causes of pragmatic failure, and finally proposes the solution to this problem—— Negotiation Strategy. The purpose is to reduce the occurrence of pragmatic failure in intercultural communication and ensure its smooth progress.
Key Words: intercultural communication; pragmatic failure; negotiation strategy
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Research Purpose and Significance 2
2 Literature Review 3
2.1 Intercultural Communication 3
2.2 Pragmatic Failure 4
2.3 Negotiation Strategy 5
3 Research Methodology 7
3.1 Subject 7
3.2.1 Questionnaire 7
3.2.2 Interview 8
3.3 Data Analysis 8
4 Result and Discussion 9
4.1.1Result of the ICC Assessment Scale 9
4.1.2Result of the Test of Pragmatic Competence 13
4.2 Discussion 13
4.2.1 The Causes for Pragmatic Failure 13
4.2.2 The Negotiation Strategy for ICC 15
5 Conclusion 18
Appendix 1 21
Appendix 2 26
Study on Pragmatic Failure and Negotiation Strategy in Intercultural Communication
- Research Background
In the 21st century when economic globalization is increasingly developing, communication and cooperation between different countries in politics, commerce, education, and culture have become much closer. More and more people have chosen to work for the multinational companies or go abroad to work and travel. Therefore, as cross-culture communication becomes an irresistible trend of history, it is especially necessary to enhance the knowledge about culture and improve the intercultural communication skills. Even though the interculture communication has been paid much attention, we should also notice that different values,behaviour patterns, ways of thinking and cultural concepts often cause communication barriers. People with different cultural or social backgrounds often encounter conflicts, misunderstanding or contradictions when they communicate with each other, even though they feel it easy to understand the literal meaning of others’ expressions. This phenomenon often happens, not owing to the non-native speakers’ grammatical incompetence such as the poor pronunciation or grammatical errors when they communicate with others, but because of their pragmatic inability which can be called pragmatic failure.
In1983,British linguist Thomas firstly put forward the term “pragmatic failure” in her research paper Cross-cultural Pragmatic Failure. Pragmatic failure can be divided into pragmalinguistic failure and sociopragmatic failure. The former mainly refers to the misuse of the language expression, while the latter refers to the expression errors caused by not understanding or ignoring the cultural or social backgrounds of both parties. The theories of Thomas laid a solid foundation for a series of subsequent analysis and research later.
- Research Purpose and Significance
Though the scholars from both home and abroad gave different point of views on the pragmatic failure and their researches were still feasible even today to some extent, we need to discuss it further since there are still many shortcomings. This article will briefly introduce the phenomenon of pragmatic failure in intercultural communication, review the studies of pragmatic failures both home and abroad, elaborate the pragmatic failure from the perspective of college students’ performances and explore its causes. By means of questionnaire, interview and careful analysis of the results, it will reveal what is the general situation of college students’ ICC and pragmatic competence at present? And what are the causes for students’ pragmatic failures? What is the negotiation strategy and its effect? How to use this method? Finally it recommends the useful method to deal with this problem—Negotiation Strategy. This paper will help English language learners improve their intercultural communication knowledge and skills, reduce the occurrence of pragmatic failures and ensure the smooth progress of intercultural communication.