信息时代日常交际的“礼貌原则”分析An Analysis of Politeness Principle in Daily Communication in the Information Age毕业论文
Politeness plays such an important role in the daily communication as an instrument of friendliness and the maintenance or establishment of social relationships that the politeness researches conducted by scholars home abroad are heated all the time. With the arrival and advancement of information age, politeness functions in more various ways and oozes fresh features and meaning. By means of the patchwork of collected literature and typical examples in daily communication, this paper finds through the analysis of the development and change of politeness in the information age that politeness depends on the formality of context, the relationship between the interlocutors and the communication medium to no small extent. Besides, politeness tinted with more humor put more emphasis on less information gap, the presentation of true self and equal status between the interlocutors. As a result, this paper is conducive to not only the subsequent research but the increased cognition of ones’ own behavior and deployment of politeness in daily communication.
Key Words: Politeness principle; daily communication; information age; communication medium
1 Introduction 1
2 The Related Factors of Politeness 3
2.1 Social convention 3
2.2 Formality and the context 4
2.3 The relationships between the interlocutors 5
2.4 The medium of conversation 6
3 Forms of Politeness in the Information Age 6
3.1 The Use of pictures, punctuation, numbers and emoji 7
3.2 Delayed response and silence 8
3.3 The avoidance of repetition 9
4 Analysis of Politeness Principle in the Information Age 9
4.1 The importance of common ground 9
4.2 The role of humor in communication 10
4.3 The prominence of individualism and equality 11
5 Conclusion 12
Analysis of Politeness Principle in Daily Communication in the Information Age
Politeness, as a ubiquitous phenomenon, exists in every conversation and functions as an important tool to mitigate the conflicts and maintain or establish social interaction. Given the importance of politeness, especially in the information age where people all around have the chance to be interconnected and are benefit-relative, the theories about politeness have been springing up with the development of pragmatics and the forms of politeness have renewed and tinted with more characteristics of times. In this paper, these new features of politeness and the development of politeness principle are discussed and analyzed in an attempt to provide somewhat meaningful materials for subsequent politeness research by making a comprehensive analysis of politeness forms and the politeness principle applied in daily communication in the information age.
With regard to the research on politeness, it has gone through evident development for many times over the past 40 years(汤睿，2010). First proposed by foreign scholars and experts, politeness theories abroad have covered many famous models, such as social norm view, whose representatives include Fraser, Held and Ardnt, and conversational maxim view, whose sub-theories are composed by Grice’s Cooperative Principle, Lakoff’s Politeness Principle and Leech’s Politeness Principle. Besides, the face-saving view proposed by Brown and Levinson are world-renowned for the conception and interpretation of Model Person, negative face and positive face. And with the increase in cross-cultural communication, politeness theories have been enriched by Scollon and his work Intercultural Communication, in which he introduces the definition of involvement and independence. Meanwhile, there are still numerous other outstanding scholars and theories, such as Watt’s first-order politeness and second-order politeness in his Politeness. While despite the fact that the relevant study in the home starts later than that in the foreign countries, the politeness theories have developed in a high speed and reaped a great harvest. When it comes to the politeness research, it is imperative to mention these scholars, such as Xu Shenghuan, Gu Yueguo and Chen Xinren, who all promote the development of politeness principle in China. As for Xu Shenghuan, he proposes the content of social networking promotion and politeness tactics deployment. As for Gu Yueguo, his theories, based on Leech’s Politeness Principle, include the maxims of politeness, addressing, agreement and so on. But in this paper, Chen Xinren’s theories are mentioned much more than the other two for his newer perspective of politeness in the Internet age. As a whole, politeness principles are becoming much richer in both number and content.