Application of Memy They to English Learning毕业论文_英语毕业论文

Application of Memy They to English Learning毕业论文

2021-04-07更新

摘 要

记忆在英语学习中占据重要的地位。在英语学习过程中记忆理论被重点运用在和词汇语篇的领域中,同时也正是词汇与语篇的学习带领了英语习得的进程。本文从记忆理论出发,探讨在词汇与语篇的学习中的记忆方法,在这些方法中有构词记忆法,联想记忆法,图像记忆法等解决在英语学习中的词汇问题,利用有效的方法学习词汇。在英语语篇理解中,工作记忆和图式理论被普遍利用,从而解决英语中语篇理解的难题,提高英语学习的能力与兴趣。本文以记忆理论为基础,分析英语词汇,语句的记忆学习过程,从而研究记忆方法提高英语学习。

关键词:记忆;词汇;语篇;英语学习

Contents

1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………..1

2. Demonstration………………………………………………………….………..2

2.1. The Generation of Memory Theory……………………………………………2

2.2. The Definition and Classification of Memory…………………………………3

2.2.1 Encoding, Storage and Retrieval……………………………………………..3

2.2.2 Sensory Memory……………………………………………………………..4

2.2.3 Short-term Memory…………………………………………………………..4

2.2.4 Long-term Memory…………………………………………………………..4

2.3. Application of Memory Theory to Learning of English………………………5

2.3.1 .Memorization of English Vocabulary…………………………………………5

2.3.1.1 Word-formation Memory Method…………………………………………5

2.3.1.2 Image Memory Method……………………………………………………6

2.3.1.3 Associative Memory Method……………………………………………….7

2.3.2 The Memorization of English Discourse……………………………………..8

2.3.2.1 Working Memory in Discourse……………………………………………..8

2.3.2.2 Schema Theory…………………………………………………………….10

3. Conclusion………………………………………………………………………11

Works Cited……………………………………………………………………….. 12

Bibliography……………………………………………………………………….13

Application of Memory Theory to English Learning

Introduction

The study of memory has a long history, while human society attached great importance to memory a long time ago. Ancient Egypt, ancient Greece and ancient Rome have worshiped various deities in regard to memory. The 4th century BC, the famous philosopher, Aristotle, has put forward several different memory models, for example, wax pill model. But the scientific research for memory was started by Germany psychologist, Hermann Ebbinghaus (1885). Ebbinghaus adopted the method of natural science to study memory and the test results are made in a curve, which is the famous Ebbinghaus’s forgetting curve.

The process of foreign language acquisition is the struggle against forgetting. Memory is the basic process of learning English, which contains encoding, storage and retrieval. In the view of modern psychology, when we pay attention to the student’s learning in regular school, most are lack of scientific methods to pick up the words. What’s more, the ignorance to some scientific connection in the memory process cannot fully excavate the potential of the human brain.

Memory is a reflection of experiences in human brain, which is a complex physiological and psychological process through the nervous system. However, few persons are born with super memory, and most people get good memory by means of proper training. In recent years, applied researchers have become increasingly interested in memory study. The thesis presents a study on the application of the memory theory to the learning of English vocabulary and discourse. It aims at making memory theories combine with the characteristics of English learning, then analyzing the process of English vocabulary and sentence when learning English, then resolving the different learning methods and theories, which help to improve the efficiency of English learning, so as to make the acquisition of English easier.

2. Demonstration

2.1. The Generation of Memory Theory

Memorization refers to encoding, storing and reserving learning materials in the memory system. Retainment means keeping things learnt in the brain for a certain time, which is a form of extracting information. Recognition is the ability to recognize perceived things when they reappear. Memory indicates the recall of perceived things although they are not within sight.
As for information processing, memory is the process of encoding, storing and reserving input information. From the perspective of information processing, learning and reciting English for the first time is just a process of inputting and encoding. From the physiological perspective, the ability of human memory is very striking, and it can store 10 to 15 bits of information. While everyone’s memory treasury is only excavated by 10% which means that there is more memory space to be explored. This is because some people only pay attention to the effects of memory at that time, but they ignore a more serious problem—namely the firmness degree of memory. This will involve forgetting rule of memory which is often mentioned in psychology.

2.2. The Definition and Classification of Memory

Rule of memory is memorization, retainment, recognition, recall and forgetting. Memorization is the beginning of memory which is to recognize and remember things, forming a certain impression. recognition is an intensive process of memorization, which makes human experiences. Recall and recognition are two different reappearances of past experiences.

2.2.1 Encoding, Storage and Retrieval

Contemporary views hypothesize that in the course of information processing there are three processes: encoding, storage and retrieval. Encoding is the process whereby information is thought to be put into the memory; Storage relates to the methods assumed to be involved in the retention of information; and retrieval relates to the processes of recovery of stored information from memory.

2.2.2 Sensory Memory

Sensory register is also called sensory memory or sensory store (Guia,103). It can be further classified into iconic or visual memory and echoic or auditory memory. When our sense organs pick up a signal from the environment, there is a momentary image registered. The corresponding process of attention and selective perception ensures that only particular stimulation is conveyed to the next part, the shortterm memory, the remaining patterns of stimulation are thought to be rid of the register. The period over which the image is registered is very short (a few hundred milliseconds) before complete decay (Sperling, 1-29).The after-image on the eye, experienced when we look at a bright light and can detect the image for some time afterwards, is an example of sensory register.

2.2.3 Short-term Memory

Compared with sensory memory and long-term memory, short-term memory has some interesting features. The capacity of short-term memory is limited, while compared with other two stages of memory, it stores less information. Besides, information stored in short-term memory will disappear after about 20 seconds. However, the short-term memory is the only stage for information to be processed consciously. It’s not difficult to find that information in short-term memory could remain far more than 20 seconds. In another aspect, the information in the sensory memory and long-term memory could not be used directly in human’s brain, while the information from the two must be transferred into short-term memory, and it will be executed, controlled and processed. So the short-term memory is also called the working memory which can be directly used in English learning.

2.2.4 Long-term Memory

Long-term memory refers to the permanent storage of information which can be kept for years or even a lifetime. Its information is mainly from the encording of short-term memory or due to the impression formed at a time. There seems to be no limit to the capacity of long-term memory, and its information is well organized. There are two kinds of information organization, which are words and imagery, namely, speech coding and image coding. Speech coding is processing information through words, according to the meaning, grammatical relation and system classification. Image coding is the use of visual image, sound, taste and touch to organize materials for memory. According to the type of the way to store information, the long-term memory can be divided into episodic memory and semantic memory.

2.3 Application of Memory Theory to Learning of English

2.3.1Memorization of English Vocabulary

A memory method refers to a method of remembering or recalling, keeping the past things in the mind. Also, it is to keep learnt things in the brain for a certain time and an extracted form of remembering information. It has a clear purpose or mission, and strives to remember certain materials by will. 

2.3.1.1 Word-formation Memory Method

Formation memory method is a kind of approach to words memorization, which is based on composition characteristics of English words such as prefixes, suffixes and root to split words and remember words systematically. We all know that grapes are usually plucked by brunch. If we pluck grapes by grain instead of bunch, it is not only time-consuming, but also losing fruits. Memorizing words according to rules of word formation is just like plucking grapes—seize the stem and analyze complex relationship of prefix and suffix. In this way, words can be remembered easily.

There are three major English word-building methods: derivation; conversion; compounding. If learners master these three basic word-building methods, they will achieve double results with half work. Derivation means adding prefix and/or suffix to the root, so that new words would be derived, which is easy to remember.

For example:

appear—disappear; understand—misunderstand;

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