Sexism in English language毕业论文_英语毕业论文

Sexism in English language毕业论文

2021-04-07更新

摘 要

语言中的性别歧视现象是生活中的性别歧视现象的一种体现。这种语言歧视现象历史悠久,不是短时间内可以消除的。从20世纪60年代起,英语语言中的性别歧视现象成为语言学家和语言学学者们研究的热点问题。研究表明,想要消除这种语言歧视现象,必须从改变生活中男女不平等的现象做起。基于前人的已取得的研究成果,本文尝试从不同角度分析语言歧视现象的成因和表现形式,提出一些消除语言使用中的歧视现象的方法和策略。本文分为三部分。第一部分简单介绍了英语语言中的性别歧视现象及其在社会生活中的体现。第二部分则分别从历史背景、社会发展、生理因素等分析性别歧视现象的成因,探讨性别歧视现象在英语语言中的表现形式,以及消除英语语言中的性别歧视现象的方法和策略。第三部分是整篇文章的总结。

关键词:性别歧视;语言;体现;成因

Contents

  1. Introduction———————————————————————————-1

1.1 Definition of Sexism———————————————————————1

1.2 Background——————————————————————————-2

1.3 Purpose and Significance of the Study in this Thesis——————————-3

1.3.1 Purpose———————————————————————————-4

1.3.2 Significance—————————————————————————–4

  1. Demonstration——————————————————————————-4

2.1 Causes for Sexism in English Language- ———————————————–4

2.1.1 Historical Background————————————————————4

2.1.2 Social Factors ———————————————————————–5

2.1.3 Body Factors ————————————————————————5

2.2 Forms of Sexism in English Language————————————————-6

2.2.1 Etymology—————————————————————————6

2.2.2 Usage ——————————————————————————–7

2.2.3 Word-formation ——————————————————————–7

2.2.4 Semantics —————————————————————————7

2.3 Elimination of Sexism in English Language ————————————-7

2.3.1 Development Trend of Sexism in English Language————————–8

2.3.2 Elimination of Sexism in English Language——————————–9

  1. Conclusion———————————————————————————–9

Works Cited————————————————————————————-10

Bibliography————————————————————————————-11

  1. Introduction

1.1 Definition of Sexism

Inspired by the word of “racism”, feminists in the United States created the term “sexism” , which means gender discrimination. Sex discrimination is a kind of phenomenon that is based on the physiological sex. It can be the discrimination against not only women but also men. “Longman English Dictionary” defines it as “gender based bias” (Longman English Dictionary 765), which usually refers to the male bias against women. “American Heritage Dictionary” defines “sexism” as “the discrimination of the members of one sex against those of the other sex, especially male against female”.(American Heritage Dictionary 653) In short, sexism is a discriminational phenomenon based on physiological gender. In fact, it usually refers to discrimination against women, although it can also apply to men in rare cases.

Sexism sums up all the behaviors which systematically debase women. In the male-centered society, women are always in a position to be examined and taken care of by men. The status of women is not equal to men. All this constitutes a discrimination against women, so discrimination usually mentioned refers to discrimination against female. Gender discrimination reflected in the language is called linguistic sexism.

1.2 Background

There exists a great difference among human languages, and the difference of gender language is perhaps the oldest form of human language differences. The differences between men and women in the use of language have always been one of the topics among anthropologists and linguists.

The earliest record of sex difference can trace back to Robin Fort’s “Histoire Naturelleet Moraledes Iles Antilletin” in 1665. (Robin Fort 62) This book recorded when Europeans first arrived at the Lesser Antilles Islands, after communicating with the local Indians living in the Caribbean, they found that the men and women there used different languages. According to some reports at that time, men and women seemed to use different languages when talking. Since the beginning of twentieth Century, the issues of language and gender had really attracted the attention of scholars. For example, the Danish linguists O. Jespersen and F. Mauthner first began the study of gender language from the perspective of linguistics and at the same time they are the first ones to observe European languages through considering the gender factors in the local language of south-east Asia. (O. Jespersen 65)

In the middle of 1960s, social linguistics, as a discipline of linguistics and sociology, was first formed in the United States. In 1966, “National Women’s organization” in the United States was set up, which pushed women’s liberation movement to a climax. Women appealed to gender equality, including language aspects. After 1970s, some famous linguists such as Lakoff, Trudgill, Zimmerman, West, Thorne Henley III and Bolinger carried the study of gender language a step forward,(L. Bolinger 266) meanwhile, they also made an inquiry into the social origin of the difference of gender language. Since then, a number of books and papers have been published on gender differences in the language. From the end of the 80’s to the 90’s, linguists had made a thorough study of gender differences based on the previous researches. For example, Holmes J, Coates D, Cameron M.R, Key J. and so on. Their studies are not only confined to the female gender discrimination, but also describe the phenomenon of female discrimination as well as male discrimination with a very objective, scientific, and realistic attitudes.

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