The Impact of English on Cantonese Based on Dynamic System Theory毕业论文
1. Introduction 1
2. Demonstration 1
2.1 Dynamic System Theory 1
2.2 Literature Review 3
2.3 The Impact of English on Cantonese 4
2.3.1 The Initial State 4
2.3.2 The Attractor State 7
2.3.3 The Variation 8
2.3.4 The Non-linearity 11
3. Conclusion 12
3.1 Major Findings 12
3.2 Implications 13
3.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Further Study 13
Works Cited 14
The Impact of English on Cantonese Based on Dynamic System Theory
Since 1990s, more and more researchers of Applied Linguistics have reckoned that the development of a language is a complex dynamic process with nonlinear features. They apply Dynamic Systems Theory (DST), stemming from Classical Mechanics which is a critical branch of natural science, to Applied Linguistics, especially to Second Language Acquisition. After Larsen-Freeman (1977) combined Dynamic System Theory and Second Language Acquisition together, linguists from home and abroad have been inspired to put more emphasis on this new theory. Nowadays, however, the analyses and applications of this theory are still lingering on the phases of introducing the fundamental principles (e.g. de Bot, 2007; Wang, 2017; Zhan, 2018, etc.) and analyzing SLA (e.g. Shen and Lv, 2018, etc.). Besides, linguists seldom use Dynamic System Theory to study the development of dialects. Therefore, in order to provide some physical evidences for the interaction of two languages, this thesis will explore and analyze the impact of English on the development of Cantonese, especially the spoken Cantonese in Guangzhou, from the perspective of Dynamic System Theory, with the focus on pronunciation, lexicon and syntactic structure by generalizing its developing history.
- Dynamic System Theory
Dynamic System Theory (also called “DST”) is a newly developing linguistic theory following those traditional theories, such as Transfer Theory, Memetics and so on. A dynamic system is the system developing and changing with times. The fundamental feature of a system is to change itself with times, so all systems are changing and developing all the time. Dynamic System Theory, stemming from Classical Mechanics at first, was applied to Applied Linguistics in “Chaos/ Complexity Science and Second Language Acquisition” by Larsen-Freeman (1997) for the first time. Not only did she establish the basic frame of Dynamic System Theory used in SLA, but she also inspired other linguists to focus on this new theory. Throughout the applications of Dynamic System Theory in Applied Linguistics, researchers at home and abroad can be divided into two major groups.
One group of these linguists put more emphasis on introducing what Dynamic System Theory actually is. Dynamic System Theory considers the developing track of a language as four steps, including Initial State, Attractor State, Variation and Non-linearity. (Liu and Li, 2017) Nowadays, there are a large number of studies explaining these four steps in detail. (de Bot, 2007; Shen and Lv, 2008; Xu, 2015; Su, 2018, etc.) It believes that linguistic systems consist of many subsystems whose tiny changes can somehow influence the entire systems to reach at the non-linearity level. And this kind of process is like the well-known Butterfly Effect. Nevertheless, these influences are not as obvious as we expect because this developing process will be hamstrung by some repulsive force, which is known as Fossilization, namely, Attractor State (Su, 2018) in Dynamic System Theory. In other words, the developing process of a language is to transform the target language from Attractor State into Variation and then to cause unpredictable results. In fact, this process is similar to the process that quantitative changes lead to qualitative changes in philosophy. When a language is at Attractor State, it is also at a stable quantitative level. On the contrary, it is at a turbulent qualitative level.