A Comparison on Shame Culture and Guilt Culture in War in the View of Westerners in the Chrysanthemum and the Sword毕业论文_英语毕业论文

A Comparison on Shame Culture and Guilt Culture in War in the View of Westerners in the Chrysanthemum and the Sword毕业论文

2021-04-02更新

摘 要

在新的国际形势下,当代国际竞争的实质是综合国力的竞争,其中文化软实力发挥着越来越重要的作用,这意味着一个国家能否获得文化优势将在很大程度上决定其在国际舞台上的地位。因此,对不同文化模式进行研究,了解它们的优缺点是很有意义的。美国人类学家鲁思·本尼迪克特在她的作品《菊与刀》中提出了耻感文化和罪感文化的概念。本文将通过对二战中日本和德国的行为和态度的分析,着重探讨耻感文化和罪感文化的不同特征及其影响。此外,本文的目的是从文化模式的角度出发,创新性地解决当今中国的生态系统可持续性问题,如日益严重的浪费问题和污染问题。

关键词:耻感文化;罪感文化;菊与刀;二战行径;生态可持续

Contents

  1. Introduction 5
  2. Demonstration 7 2.1Shame culture in Asian countries and guilt culture in western countries 7
      1. The original concepts of shame culture and guilt culture 7
      2. The effects of shame culture in Asian countries 7
      3. The effects of guilt culture in Western countries 8
    1. The contrasts of shame culture and guilt culture in WWII 9
      1. Behaviors of Germany and Japan in WWII 9
      2. Features and differences 10

2.3 Practical significance of guilt culture to China 10

2.3.1 Unsustainable development problems: increasingly-serious waste probems 11 2.3.2Tackling social problems with the sense of guilt 13

  1. Conclusion 15

Works Cited 16 Bibliography 17

On the Analysis of Shame Cu ture and Gu t Cu ture in the View of Westerners in TheChrysanthemumandtheSword

  1. Int oduct on

The Chrysanthemum and the Sword, a book containing the war-time research on the society and culture of Japan and aimed to aid the United States and its allies in WWII, was published in 1946 by Ruth Benedict. As an anthropologist, she made use of the cultural characteristics to the fullest to try to understand the national personalities that contribute to their aggression and find their weakness to beat. Benedict played a key role in grasping the place of the Emperor of Japan and formulating the recommendation to President Franklin D. And it is in TheChrysanthemumandtheSwordthat she proposed the idea of dividing culture into shame culture and guilt culture.

Ruth Benedict was an American anthropologist, folklorist, poet, and novelist. One of the first women to make major contributions to the study of anthropology, Benedict also helped to popularize the subject for wider audiences. In a field dominated by men until the early 20th century, Benedict left an indelible impact on her successors, leaving behind a body of work that is still widely read and studied by anthropologists as well as the broader public. In her search for a career, she decided to attend some lectures at the New School for Social Research while looking into the possibility of becoming an educational philosopher. However, after taking a class called “Sex in Ethnology” taught by Elsie Clews Parsons, Ruth’s love for anthropology steadily grew. As close friend Margaret Mead explained,” Anthropology made the first ‘sense’ that any ordered approach to life had ever made to Ruth Benedict.”

Benedict’s Patterns of culture (1934) was translated into fourteen languages and was published in many editions as standard reading for

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