加里·斯奈德诗歌创作中生态思想的中国元素Chinese Elements in Ecological Thoughts of Gary Snyder's Poetry毕业论文_英语毕业论文

加里·斯奈德诗歌创作中生态思想的中国元素Chinese Elements in Ecological Thoughts of Gary Snyder’s Poetry毕业论文

2021-04-02更新

摘 要

美国诗人加里·施奈德关注人与自然的关系,他提倡回归荒野、尊重生命、保护生态,他希望营造一个人与自然和谐相处的理想王国。施奈德的诗歌中充满了深邃的生态思想。施奈德深受东方文化和西方文化的影响,他以诗歌为载体表达他对生态的关注,从他诗歌中流露出来的生态思想中可以发现大量中国文化元素。中国的道家学说、禅宗哲学、儒家思想、中国古典诗歌和中国山水画都对施奈德生态思想产生了深远的影响。本文主要探讨施奈德诗歌中蕴含的生态思想,挖掘其生态思想中的中国元素。本文分为四个部分:第一部分介绍生态诗人加里·施奈德和课题相关研究现状;第二部分阐述施奈德生态思想的主要内容;第三部分论述施奈德生态思想中呈现出的中国元素;第四部分为总结。

关键词:加里·施奈德;生态思想;中国元素

Abstract

The American poet Gary Snyder pays attention to the relationship between human and nature. He advocates returning to the wilderness, respecting life, and protecting the ecology. He hopes to create an ideal kingdom where human and nature can get along well with each other. Snyder’s poetry is full of profound ecological thoughts. Snyder is deeply influenced by Eastern and Western cultures. He employs poetry as a carrier to express his concern for ecology, a lot of Chinese cultural elements can be found in the ecological thoughts revealed in his poems. Taoism, Zen philosophy, Confucianism, Chinese classical poetry and Chinese landscape painting have profound effects on Snyder’s ecological thought. This paper mainly discusses the ecological thoughts contained in Snyder’s poetry and explores the Chinese elements in his ecological thoughts. The paper can be divided into four parts. The first part is introduction to the ecological poet Gary Snyder as well as the related status quo about this topic; in the second part, the main content of Snyder’s ecological thoughts will be expounded; in the third part, the Chinese elements in Snyder’s ecological thoughts will be explored respectively; the fourth part is the conclusion.

Keywords: Gary Snyder; ecological thoughts; Chinese elements

Contents

1 Introduction 1

2 Snyder’s Ecological Thoughts 3

2.1 Wilderness View 4

2.2 Regional View 4

2.3 Ecological View 5

3 Chinese Elements in Snyder’s Ecological Thoughts 6

3.1 Taoism in Snyder’s Ecological Thoughts 6

3.2 Zen Philosophy in Snyder’s Ecological Thoughts 8

3.3 Confucianism in Snyder’s Ecological Thoughts 9

3.4 Chinese Classical Poetry in Snyder’s Ecological Thoughts 10

3.5 Chinese Landscape Painting in Snyder’s Ecological Thoughts 12

4 Conclusions 14

References 15

Acknowledgements 17

Chinese Elements in Ecological Thoughts of Gary Snyder’s Poetry

1 Introduction

Gary Snyder is a famous American ecological poet. The profound ecological thoughts in Snyder’s works have long been acknowledged by the world. He is the poet laureate of deep ecology. Gary Snyder has published 16 volumes of poetry. His masterpieces include Riprap and Cold Mountain Poems, Mountains and Rivers Without End and Turtle Island. In 1975, the most classic ecological work Turtle Island won him the Pulitzer Prize for poetry. In 1997, he received the Bollingen Poetry Prize and the John Hay Award for Nature Writing.

In 1930, Snyder was born in San Francisco, USA. When he was a year and a half, his family moved to a farm in northern Seattle. During his childhood, he had close contact with animals and made friends with forests. His ecological consciousness began to sprout at that time. Snyder’s ecological thoughts are influenced by Eastern culture, Western culture and Native American culture. When he was 11 or 12 years old, he appreciated Chinese painting at the Chinese Pavilion of the Seattle Art Museum, Snyder had a resonance with Chinese culture for the first time. In 1951, he graduated from Reed College and got a degree in literature and anthropology. In 1953, he studied Master of Oriental Linguistics at Berkeley College in California. He studied Japanese and Chinese, and learned more about Chinese culture. Later, he translated 24 poems written by Han Shan. From 1956 to 1968, he traveled to Japan and became a monk, he was obsessed with Zen. During this time He read The Sangha Sutra, The Hua Yan Jing, and the works of Hui Neng, Baizhang Huaihai, Xiang Yan and other Buddhist masters. In 1969, Snyder returned to the United States and settled in the mountains of northern California with his Japanese wife, living a very simple life. In 1984, Gary Snyder visited China as a member of the delegation of American writers. He finally came to realize his 30-year dream of visiting the “Central Kingdom.” In 1985 he became a professor at the University of California, Davis, while continuing to travel, read and lecture, and devoted himself to ecological protection. In 2003, he was elected as a member of the American Academy of Poets.

As a poet laureate in deep ecology, Gary Snyder is increasingly concerned by Chinese scholars and foreign scholars. The reasons are as follows. Firstly, Chinese scholars are interested in the views in his poems influenced by traditional Chinese culture, the representative scholars include Zhong Ling, Chen Xiaohong, district officials, etc. Secondly, American scholars have keen interest in Snyder’s ecological connotations and postmodern artistic techniques. Thirdly, the increasingly prosperous cross-cultural communication has enabled Chinese and foreign scholars to learn from each other. Foreign scholars have studied Snyder’s ecological thoughts earlier than domestic scholars. American eco-literary criticism emerged in the context of the growing global environmental crisis in the 1990s. Until the 21st century, domestic scholars began to study Snyder from the perspective of ecological literary criticism. Domestic scholars mostly studied the influence of Chinese culture on Snyder’s poetry and the comparison between Snyder and the Tang Dynasty poet Han Shan. Foreign scholars mainly study Snyder’s poetics from the perspective of ecological criticism and postmodernism. With the prevalence of economic and cultural globalization, the east-west cultural exchange has become increasingly frequent. Chinese and foreign scholars study Snyder in a different light and also learn from each other. Most of the domestic and foreign researches are based on the general introduction of Snyder’s ecological thoughts. The author will explore the Chinese elements in Snyder’s ecological thoughts from the microscopic perspective.

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